Bully Beef


Men of the 2nd Australian Division in a front-line trench cooking a meal, Croix du Bac, near Armentieres. A variety of cooking methods were employed including primus stoves and braziers and soldiers produced a lunch of hot ‘bully beef’ hash from tins of corned beef.         © IWM (Q 583)

Last Thursday we shared a story about Canadians using tins of bully beef, (generally known as corned beef today), to lure enemy troops into a raiding trap (full story). While not the best, nor the worst food available, the troops eventually grew restless of eating bully beef day after day – hence their willingness to “feed it to the Germans”. The tins of bully beef were often re-purposed for other more practical means. Once emptied of their contents they were often “recycled” by troops who turned them over and stamped them into the ground, shoring up their footing in the muddy trenches. Behind the front at the armouries, the tins were melted down for solder. Interestingly bully beef was only just removed from British military rations in 2009, after over a century of service.


Empty bully-beef tins being put into a “Beehive” kiln for the extraction of solder. Etaples, 16 May 1918.
© IWM (Q 8789).


Trench Raids – Dirty Tricks

The first trench raid made by Canadian troops is believed to have taken place on 28 February 1915, by Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry (Nicholson, Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919, p. 88). At the time, trench raids were still small but efficient strikes by groups numbering from a couple dozen to one hundred men. In a war faltered to a standstill, trench raids provided the opportunity for those willing, to get at the enemy in daring operations. Consequently, raiding parties were regarded with an air of both extreme danger and boldness.

“A raiding party of the 10th Battalion, Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) waiting in nap for the signal to go. John Warwick Brooke, the official photographer, followed them in the sap, into which a shell fell short killing seven men. Near Arras, 24 March 1917”. © IWM (Q 5098).

The men who made up raiding parties came from all walks of life – many would have volunteered for the job, but undoubtedly others were coerced by their comrades to tag along. Simply put, trench raiders needed to be both brutally vicious and exceptionally restrained and self-reliant. Crawling through no man’s land, beneath and over barbed wire, ready to fight at a moment’s notice was not for the faint of heart. Brutal, dirty trickery was also a necessity in order to survive. While the Germans were known to booby-trap potential souvenirs and corpses with explosives, Lieutenant Louis Keene of a Canadian Machine Gun Company reveals the Canadians were just as nasty.

When his men learned the Germans actually liked the cans of bully beef fed to Commonwealth troops, they began to throw cans of it over into the German lines:

“Throw one over… sounds like shuffling and getting out of the way are heard in the enemy trench. Fritz thinks it’s going to go off [as a grenade]. Pause, and throw another. Fritz not so suspicious this time. Keep on throwing until happy voices from enemy trenches shout, ‘More! Give us more!’ Then lob over as many hand grenades as you can pile into that part of the trench and tell them to share those too.” (Cook, Shock Troops – Canadians Fighting The Great War 1917-1918, p. 56).

“A raiding party of the 1/8th (Irish) King’s Liverpool Regiment, 55th Division, at Wailly, France. Photograph taken the morning after a night raid during the 17/18th April 1916”. © IWM (Q 510).