History of the Monument

After the war, Canadians wanted a physical symbol of their mourning – a tangible expression of remembrance. Public opinion and veterans’ organizations pressured Canada’s postwar governments into marking soldiers’ sacrifices. While various monuments and memorials were erected in Canada, the Canadian Battlefields Memorials Commission was set up in 1920 by the Canadian government to decide how to properly commemorate the fallen Canadian soldiers of the Great War, and to decide what to do with the eight sites in Europe granted to Canada by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

After a public design competition with over 160 submissions, the Commission selected two designs: one from Walter Allward and another from Frederick Chapman Clemesha. But the debates continued on about whereabouts the national war memorial should be placed. In 1922, after presenting their arguments to Prime Minister Mackenzie King, the Commission placed their support behind Walter Allward’s design being located at Vimy Ridge. After some negotiations, the land around Vimy Ridge was gifted to Canada by the French government in December 1922 as a mark of gratitude for Canada’s involvement in the defense of France during the First World War.

(The second design chosen, the “Brooding Soldier,” was erected in Belgium near Ypres as a tribute to those Canadian who died in the first gas attacks of the war. Unveiled in 1923, it is widely considered another of the most striking memorials of the Western Front.)

Littered with unexploded shells and grenades, rusted weapons and wire, 100,000 yards of earth had to be removed by hand to prepare for the monument’s base. Other relics of the war, the dugouts and tunnels, (when discovered), had to be emptied of the explosive munitions that were often stored within, and filled with wet chalk or concrete. Finding these underground caverns hidden beneath the monument’s base was crucial, for in total, the memorial would weigh more than 50,000 tons.

The stone for the memorial is marble from an ancient Roman quarry in Seget, Croatia. Allward chose this stone because he wanted white marble, but was worried about its durability in the conditions of Northern France. When he saw that Diocletian’s Palace in Split, Croatia, was still standing and still beautiful, he decided to use the same stone.

Due to the difficulty of quarrying such large slabs of stone, as well as its extensive shipping route, the first shipment of Allward’s selected Seget limestone did not arrive in France until 1927. In an effort to keep his workers busy, many of whom were French and British veterans, Canadian military engineer Major Unwin Simson decided to preserve a section of trench lines that had been slowly deteriorating since 1918. Workers reinforced the German and Canadian lines near the Grange crater group by filling sandbags with concrete and re-lining the dugout walls. A portion of the Grange Subway was also excavated, a concrete entrance poured, and electrical lighting installed. The opportunity to experience these preserved trenches and tunnel systems at the Vimy Memorial today can be largely attributed to Major Simson’s efforts.

Construction began in 1925, took 11 years to build and cost 1.5 million dollars.

The monument sits on the highest point of the ridge, known during the battle as Hill 145.

The two tall columns represent Canada and France, and the friendship between them. The pillars together and the horizontal base also form the top half of a cross. The monument includes 20 allegorical figures representing such values as honour, justice and peace. The two highest figures are Justice and Peace. One female figure, who stands alone looking out over the slopes of the ridge, is known as “Canada Mourning Her Fallen Sons” or “Canada Bereft”. She is carved from a single, 30 tonne block of stone. The base of the monument is engraved with the 11,285 names of Canadians who have no known grave in France.

Its design, consistent with First World War commemoration in general, was a significant departure from previous war monuments. As Jacqueline Hucker and Julian Smith note in Vimy: Canada’s Memorial to a Generation, “the major structures were erected as memorials rather than victory monuments and brought into focus the loss of life and sacrifice for one’s country, rather than military accomplishments. Some also made reference to the suffering of those left to grieve in the melancholy post-war years.” (p.25)

On 26 July 1936, the Vimy Memorial was ready for its unveiling. The Vimy Pilgrims arrived on the site early in the day, taking time to explore the battlefield that Will R. Bird had told them of in 1931, especially the tunnels and trenches fortuitously preserved by Major Unwin Simson of the Canadian Engineers. As the official ceremonies began, the Pilgrims fell in to ranks as though on parade. Crowded around the Vimy Memorial were more than 100,000 people. While King Edward VIII mingled through the crowds of veterans, British and French Air Force Squadrons flew low over the monument, dipping their wings in salute.

The King delivered a brief speech in both English and French, before pulling the drawstring on the Union Jack that cloaked the Canada Bereft figure, officially unveiling the Vimy Memorial. The Last Post was sounded, followed by two minutes silence, ended by the sounding of Reveille. In the valley leading to the Douai Plain, artillery cracked a 21-gun salute that reverberated across the old battlefield. Following along back home, the entire ceremony was broadcast live to Canada by the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission. Follow this link to hear King Edward VIII’s speech: http://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/1936-vimy-ridge-memorial-unveiled

The original Vimy Pilgrimage was supported by the government, which waved passport fees and even issued special Vimy Pilgrimage passports. The Canadian Legion also coordinated the lodging and transportation for the pilgrims. The whole trip cost $160 per person at the time, the equivalent of nearly $3,000 today.

In 1940, when France was occupied by the Nazis, Adolf Hitler visited the site. Despite fears that it would be destroyed, the occupying forces did not harm the memorial.

In the early 2000s in advance of the 90th anniversary of the battle, the memorial underwent extensive restoration work, and the restored site was unveiled in 2007 by Queen Elizabeth II. The memorial was the site of the centenary commemorations of the battle in April 2017.

Walter Allward, Architect

Walter Seymour Allward was born in Toronto on 18 November 1876. He is best known for his work designing and sculpting the Canadian National Vimy Memorial.

While a teenager studying at Central Technical School in Toronto, he trained as a carpenter under his father, and eventually began an apprenticeship at the architectural firm Gibson and Simpson. At age nineteen, Allward started working at the Don Valley Brick Works, sculpting with terracotta.

Allward’s early work focused on war memorials. His first commission was a monument to the North-West Rebellion, and other commissions followed for memorials to the War of 1812 and the South African War. He also worked on busts of Canadian historical personalities, including John Graves Simcoe and William Lyon Mackenzie. Other famous works by Allward include the Bell Telephone Memorial in Brantford, and the South African War Memorial in Toronto.

After drafting 150 design sketches, Allward submitted his proposal for the monument to the fallen Canadians of the Great War to the design competition run by the Canadian Battlefields Memorials Commission. In 1921, his design was selected from among 160 submissions, and shortly thereafter it was decided by the Commission that his design would be built at Vimy Ridge. Allward set up a studio in London in 1922, which he used as a base while he travelled Europe in search of a suitable material for the monument. He eventually selected Seget limestone, the same stone that was used to build Diocletian’s Palace in what is now Croatia.

With the stone chosen, Allward returned to London, where he created life-sized plaster models. The models were then sent to Vimy, where they were copied in the limestone by the professional carvers working at the site. Allward visited Vimy multiple times over the following years to oversee construction. The building process of the monument took much longer than expected due to the prolonged search for the perfect stone, the transportation of that stone from to Northern France, the necessity of creating a massive concrete and steel base, and the complexity of the design. Finally, fifteen years after work on the monument began, it was officially unveiled on 26 July 1936 by King Edward VIII.

Prior to his work on the Vimy Monument, Allward was widely recognized as a master sculptor across Canada. In 1900, he was elected to the Ontario Society of Artists, and he joined the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts three years later. The year his monument at Vimy was unveiled, Allward became an Honourary Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, and in 1938 his work on the Vimy Memorial was recognized in a Parliamentary session by Prime Minister Mackenzie King. He was made a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George in 1944.

Allward also appears as a character in the novel “The Stone Carvers” by Canadian author Jane Urquhart.

Walter Seymour Allward died in Toronto on 24 April 1955, aged 78.

Visiting The Canadian National Vimy Memorial

The Canadian National Vimy Memorial site is managed by the Government of Canada through Veterans Affairs. The Vimy Ridge National Historic Site Site is located about 10 km north of Arras, 15 km south of Lens, 135 km southeast of Calais, and 175 km north of Paris.

For information on guided tours, operating hours, special events, and travel information to reach Vimy, please visit Veterans Affairs Canada


Post-secondary students in Canada are hired to work at the Canadian National Vimy Memorial and Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial. Find out more here: https://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/information-for/students/student-guide-program-in-france

Researching Our History

Veterans Affairs Canada

The Vimy Memorial is managed by Veterans Affairs Canada. To take a virtual tour of the memorial, please click here.

To view a digital representation of what Vimy Ridge was like in April 1917, please click here.

To research the registry of information about the graves and memorials of more than 118,000 Canadians and Newfoundlanders who served valiantly and gave their lives for their country, visit the Canadian Virtual War Memorial.

Library and Archives Canada

Over 600,000 men and women enlisted in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) during the First World War (1914-1918) as soldiers, nurses and chaplains. The CEF database is an index to those service files, which are held by Library and Archives Canada, to find personnel records of the First World War,  diaries and military collections of soldiers and War Diaries.

From the start of the First World War, CEF units were required to maintain a daily account of their “Actions in the Field.” This log was called a War Diary. The War Diaries are not personal diaries, rather they are a historical record of a unit’s administration, operations and activities during the First World War.

Canadian Letters and Images Project

The Canadian Letters and Images Project is an online archive of the Canadian war experience, from any war, as told through the letters and images of Canadians themselves. Begun in August 2000, the Project is located in the Department of History at Vancouver Island University. Click here to access the First World War collection.

Canadian War Museum

The Canadian War Museum has a number of valuable resources for researching Canada’s involvement in the First World War, both in person at the museum and online. Click here to check out their virtual exhibition on Canada and the First World War, including lesson plans, photograph and document packages, and book lists of recommended reading for Canadian youth organized by age.


Canada And The First World War: A Select Bibliography

Great books on the First World War for youth

The Canadian Children’s Book Centre has put together a thorough bibliography of books recommended for grades 1 through 10. Click here to view.


Books on the Battle of Vimy Ridge 1917

Barris, Ted, Victory at Vimy: Canada Comes of Age: April 9-12, 1917, Toronto: Thomas Allen, 2007

Berton, Pierre, Vimy, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1986.

Christie, N.M., The Canadians at Vimy, April 1917, v. III, Nepean: CEF Books, 1996.

Christie, N.M., Winning the Ridge: The Canadians at Vimy Ridge, 1917, Access to History Series, No. 3, Nepean: CEF Books, The Canadian History Series, 1998.

Cook. Time, Vimy: The Battle and the Legend: Allen Lane, 2017.

Douglas, T: Valour At Vimy Ridge: Canadian Heroes of World War I: Altitude Publishing, 2007

J.L. Granatstein, “Without Peer [Canadians at Vimy Ridge 1917],” Legion Magazine (Feb.-Mar., 2007).

Greenhous, Brereton & Stephen J. Harris, Canada and the Battle of Vimy Ridge, 9-12 April 1917, Ottawa: Department of National Defence, Directorate of History, 1992.

J.R. Grodzinski, “The Use and Abuse of Battle: Vimy Ridge and the Great War over the History of the First World War”

Hayes, Geoffrey et al., eds., Vimy Ridge: A Canadian Reassessment, Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2007.

Macintyre, D.E., Canada at Vimy, Toronto: Peter Martin, 1967.

Macksey, Kenneth, Vimy Ridge 1914-18, London: Ballantine, 1973.

McKee, Alexander, Vimy Ridge, London: Pan, 1968.

Sheldon, Jack, The German Army on Vimy Ridge 1914-1917, London: Pen and Sword, 2008.

Turner, Alexander, Vimy Ridge 1917: Bynh’s Canadians Triumph at Arras, Botley, U.K.: Osprey, 2005.

Wood, H.F., Vimy!, London: Corgi, 1972.

Histories of Canada and the First World War

Adamson, Agar, The Letters of Agar Adamson, 1914-1919.

Bashow, David L., Knights of the Air: Canadian Fighter Pilots in the First World War, Toronto: McArthur, 2000.

Bernier, Serge, Le Royal 22e Régiment 1914-1999, Montréal: Art Global, 1999.

Brown, Robert Craig & Cook, Ramsay, Canada. 1896-1921: A Nation Transformed, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1974.

Christie, N. M., Gas Attack! The Canadians at Ypres, 1915, Access to History Series, No. 1, Nepean: CEF Books, The Canadian History Series, 1998.

Christie, N. M., Futility and Sacrifice: The Canadians on the Somme, 1916, Access to History Series, No. 2, Nepean: CEF Books, The Canadian History Series, 1998.

Christie, N. M., Slaughter in the Mud: The Canadians at Passchendaele, 1917, Access to History Series, No. 4, Nepean: CEF Books, The Canadian History Series, 1998.

Christie, N. M., The Canadians on the Somme, September-November 1916, v. II, Nepean: CEF Books, 1996.

Christie, N. M., The Canadians at the Canal du Nord and Cambrai, September-October 1918, v. VI, Nepean: CEF Books, 1997.

Christie, N. M., The Canadians at Amiens, August 1918, v. VII, Nepean: CEF Books, 1998.

MacMillan, Margaret, Paris 1919 (entitled “The Peacemakers” in the UK)

Cook, Tim, Canadians Fighting the Great War, Vol. I: At the Sharp End; Vol. II: Shock Troops, Toronto: Viking, 2007-8.

Cook, Tim, Clio’s Warriors: Canadian Historians and the Writing of the World Wars, Vancouver: UBC Press, 2006.

Cook, Tim, The Madman and the Butcher [Hughes and Currie], Toronto: Allen Lane, 2010.

Cook, Tim, No Place to Run: The Canadian Corps and Gas Warfare in the First World War, Vancouver: UBC Press, 1999.

Cooke, O.A., The Canadian Military Experience 1867-1995: A Bibliography (en francais: Bibliographie de la vie militaire au Canada, 1867-1995), 3rd ed., Ottawa: Directorate of History and Heritage, Dept. of National Defence, 1997.

Dancocks, Daniel G., Welcome to Flanders Fields: The First Canadian Battle of the Great War: Ypres, 1915, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1988.

Dancocks, Daniel G., Legacy of Valour: The Canadians at Passchendaele, Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers, 1986.

Dancocks, Daniel G., Sir Arthur Currie: A Biography, Toronto: Methuen, 1985.

Dancocks, Daniel G., Spearhead to Victory: Canada and the Great War, Edmonton: Hurtig, 1987.

Granatstein, J.L. & Hitsman, J.M., Broken Promises: A History of Conscription in Canada, Toronto: Oxford Univ. Press, 1977.

Granatstein, J.L., Canada’s Army: Waging War and Keeping the Peace, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004, 2011.

Granatstein, J.L., Hell’s Corner: An Illustrated History of Canada’s Great War 1914-1918, Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 2004.

Granatstein, J.L. & Oliver, Dean, The Oxford Companion to Canadian Military History, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Gwyn, Sandra, Tapestry of War, A Private View of Canadians in the Great War, 2004.

Hadley, Michael L. & Sarty, Roger, Tin-pots and Pirate Ships: Canadian Naval Forces & German Sea Raiders, 1880-1918, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press, 1991.

Harris, Stephen, Canadian Brass: The Making of a Professional Army 1860-1939, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988.

Haycock, Ron, Sam Hughes: The Public Career of a Controversial Canada, 1885-1916, Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1986.

Humphries, Mark, The Selected Papers of Sir Arthur Currie: Diaries, Letters, and Report to the Ministry, 1917-1933, Waterloo: LCMSDS Press of Wilfrid Laurier University, 2008.

Hyatt, A.M.J., General Sir Arthur Currie: A Military Biography, Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1987.

Iarocci, Andrew, Shoestring Soldiers: The 1st Canadian Division at War, 1914-1915, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008

Keshen, Jeffrey, Propaganda and Censorship During Canada’s Great War, Edmonton: Univ. of Alberta Press, 1996

Mackenzie, David: Canada and the First World War: Essays in Honour of Robert Craig Brown, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005.

Marteinson, John, et al., We Stand On Guard: An Illustrated History of the Canadian Army, Montreal: Ovale Publications, 1992.

Miller, Ian, Our Glory & Our Grief: Torontonians and the Great War, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002.

Milner, Marc, Canada’s Navy: The First Century, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.

Morton, Desmond, Album of the Great War, Toronto: Grolier Ltd., Grolier Album Series, 1986.

Morton, Desmond, A Military History of Canada, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2007.

Morton, Desmond & Granatstein, J.L., Marching to Armageddon: Canada and the Great War, 1914-1919, Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1989.

Morton, Desmond, Silent Battle: Canadian Prisoners of War in Germany, 1914-1919, Toronto: Lester Publishing, 1992.

Morton, Desmond, When Your Number’s Up: the Canadians in the First World War, Toronto: Random House of Canada, 1993. (Translated by Andrée Laprise as “Billet pour le front”.

Morton, Desmond & Wright, Glenn, Winning the Second Battle: Canadian Veterans and the Return to Civilian Life, 1915-1930, Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1987.

Nicholson, G.W.L., Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919, Ottawa: Department of National Defence, 1962.

Rawling, Bill, Surviving Trench Warfare: Technology and the Canadian Corps, 1914-1918, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992.

Ruck, Calvin, W., The Black Battalion, 1916-1920: Canada’s Best Kept Military Secret, Halifax: Nimbus Publishing, Ltd., 1987.

Schreiber, Shane B., Shock Army of the British Empire: The Canadian Corps in the Last 100 Days of the Great War, Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1997.

Swettenham, John, To Seize the Victory: The Canadian Corps in World War I, Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1965.

Thompson, John Herd, The Harvests of War: The Prairie West, 1914-1918, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1978.

Vance, Jonathan, High Flight: Aviation and the Canadian Imagination, Toronto: Penguin, 2002.

Vance, Jonathan, Objects of Concern: Canadian Prisoners of War Through the Twentieth Century, Vancouver: UBC Press, 1994.

Williams, Jeffery, Byng of Vimy, London: Leo Cooper, 1992.

Wise, S.F., Canadian Airmen and the First World War, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980. (Also published in French under the title: Les aviateurs canadiens dans la Première Guerre mondiale.)

Wood, James, Militia Myths: Ideas of the Canadian Citizen Soldier, Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010.

General First World War Histories

Gary Sheffield, Forgotten Victory: The First World War: Myths and Realities, London: Headline Press, 2001.

John Keegan, The First World War, London: Vintage Books, 2000.

Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, London: Henry Holt, 1995.

Tim Travers, The Killing Ground: The British Army, Western Front & Emergency of Modern War, 1900-1918, London: Pen & Sword Books, 2003.

Hew Strachan, The First World War Vol 1: To Arms, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Hew Strachan, Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War, Oxford, 2000.


When you look at old black and white photos, the past seems very far away. This is especially apparent with First World War photographs. And yet in the course of time, it was only yesterday.

The Vimy Foundation, with the support of the Department of Canadian Heritage and the R. Howard Webster Foundation is launching a unique and innovative project to colourize images of the First World War, a project aimed at re-engaging young Canadians in a defining moment in our history.

The images featured within this project will not only highlight the important battles in Canada’s history, but also life on the home front, wartime industries, the contributions of women, and advances in medical and communications technologies.


The First World War was a transformative experience for Canada and while the memory of the conflict and its impacts on our collective consciousness are slowly vanishing, these photos capture our attention. They provide us with a clearer understanding of what the First World War would have looked like to the people who lived it.

The First World War in Colour project will consist of colourizing 150 images from Library and Archives Canada as well as local archives from across the country. These photographs will help commemorate both the 100th anniversary of the end of the First World War and the 150th anniversary of Canada’s Confederation.


An original short film produced by the NFB in partnership with the Vimy Foundation

The Vimy Foundation is incredibly excited to have partnered with the National Film Board of Canada on an original short film featuring colourized First World War footage. The film, premiering early November 2017, will be the first time the NFB produces a film featuring colourized footage from their own archives!

We hope that Return to Vimy will resonate with all Canadians, especially youth, and help them better understand what the First World War may have looked like to the people who lived it. The film is an emotional journey back in time that we hope helps re-engage Canadians on their country’s First World War legacy.

To watch the full film click more button below.


The Vimy Foundation, with the support of the Government of Canada presents an exciting new travelling exhibit: THE GREAT WAR IN COLOUR: A new look at Canada’s First World War effort – 1914-1918.

The exhibit will feature colourized First World War photos in addition to historical information and educational resources. The exhibit will be made available to museums and galleries across the country.

Stay tuned for future venues and tour dates.



The First World War was the first major conflict in which large number of soldiers made use of a camera.

In 1912, the Eastman Kodak Company introduced the Vest Pocket Kodak camera. Sales of this tiny camera (designed to fit inside a vest pocket) increased dramatically with an estimated one in five Allied officers carried one by the end of the First World War.

Learn more about photography during the First World War, and the colourization process.